What is electrical conductivity: Electrical conductivity is the ability of a substance or material to allow the passage of electrical current through itself, that is, to transport electrons. It is the opposite of electrical resistance.
Electrical conductors vary according to the temperature and the atomic and molecular structures of the substances or materials. Two types of electrical conductors stand out: metallic ones and electrolytes.
See also the meaning of Electricity.
Electrical conductivity in water
The electrical conductivity in liquid substances is related to the existence of salts in substances and their composition of positive and negative ions (atoms with a positive or negative charge), capable of transporting electrical energy. These ionic conductors are called electrolytes.
The electrical conductivity will depend on the number of ions dissolved in the liquid, on the charge and mobility of the ions, and also on the viscosity or density of the substance. That is, as there are a large number of dissolved ions, the higher the conductivity.
For example, the density of water decreases when the temperature rises, consequently the electrical conductivity increases.
Electrical conductivity occurs through drinking water, seawater, and deionized water.
See also Conductivity.
Electrical conductivity in metals
Solid materials capable of carrying out electrical conductivity are those that have valence bands (high ranges of electrical energy) and form a cloud of free electrons that generate current when subjected to an electric field.
Metals are composed of many electrons, for this reason, they are good conductors of electricity. The bonds of the atoms that have the metals give certain freedom of movement to the electrons, therefore they are electrical conductors.
Some of the metals with the highest electrical conductivity are iron, silver, copper, aluminum, and gold.
Soil electrical conductivity
Through electrical conductivity, the concentration of soluble salts present in soils can be measured and the ability of a material to conduct current can be determined.
That is, the higher the electrical conductivity, the higher the concentration of salts and the lower the electrical conductivity, the fertilization of soils is facilitated. For this reason, it is necessary to analyze how electrical conductivity can affect substances in the soil.
The electrical conductivity of the soil can be affected depending on the quality of the water used in the development of agricultural or soil-related activities.
See also the meaning of Electrical resistance.